THE OVERTURES FOR PEACE.
After conferring with the Government, he was authorized to assure his people, upon the most important points, of the good intentions of the Government, and also to inform the leaders that if the Company's government was restored there would be a general amnesty. At the time this conference was going on between the Dominion Government and the Archbishop, neither of the two sad events, the murder of Scott and the shooting of young Sutherland, had occurred. Up to that time Riel and his followers had only committed depredations, unlawfully detained prisoners, and resisted authority. They had committed no bloodshed. But in the interval between Archbishop Taché's leaving Ottawa and his arrival in Winnipeg, or rather at St. Boniface, the tragedies which so stirred the hearts of the Canadian people had taken place. The journey between Ottawa and St. Boniface, at this period, was a long and tedious one. As soon as I heard of the arrival of the Archbishop, I felt that a change would soon take place in the condition of affairs, as the prelate possessed great influence over his people, was greatly respected by all who knew him, and possessed sufficient astuteness to realize the danger his people incurred by continuing to resist lawful authority. I have forgotten the precise date of the Archbishop's arrival; but, no doubt, on his coming lengthened negotiations took place between him and Riel, and he must have experienced much difficulty in compelling the usurper, to abandon the desperate attitude he had assumed.
Riel had made his first attempts at resistance with the countenance and Connivance of many of the priest~, who always desired the temporal as well as the spiritual welfare of their people. Up to a certain point, he used them to further his designs; but as soon as he had obtained the prestige and power which his continued successes gave him, his vanity and personal ambition led him to cast off the authority of his spiritual advisers, and he would now brook little interference on their part. Such was the opinion I formed at the time of the murder of Scott, and I felt that the influence of the clergy on his behalf, if it was used, would have little avail; for Riel was bloodthirsty and determined to make his personal power felt by the most extreme measures. To show his mood at this time, he even put a guard on the Arch- bishop's palace, and tried to prevent him from communi- cating with Mr. McTavish or with Mr. Smith.
When Archbishop Taché arrived, he found Riel in this position of power, with a considerable personal following within the walls of the Fort to assist him in sustaining it. As the actions of the Archbishop at this period brought about political results which created a great deal of excitement and controversy, and placed the Government in a difficult position, it is necessary to point out, so far as we could judge, how these events were brought about. As I said before, the Archbishop had received authority from the Governor-General to promise a general amnesty to his people, in order to reestablish, as far as possible law and order in the settlement. Added to that, he had a strong personal sympathy for Riel, and this, no doubt, influenced his actions considerably. However, he was dismayed at the turn affairs had taken, by the second incarceration of the prisoners and by the murder of Scott, and he was, doubtless, embarrassed as to the course he should pursue. As there was no telegraph, and no means of communication, short of a journey over the four hundred and fifty miles of snow-clad prairie to St. Paul, he had to use his best judgment under the circumstances, and, of course, had to deal with Riel, who held full control of the situation and was not prepared to allow any temporal interference on the Archbishop's part.
Riel held the prisoners as a constant menace to the peace and safety of the settlement, and Archbishop Taché, wishing to obtain their release and restore order, had to choose between leaving the prisoners where they. were or to include Riel in the amnesty which he had been empowered to grant. There is no doubt he must have had some difficulty in convincing Riel of the prudence of his accepting the amnesty, though such was not contemplated by the Dominion Government, who were not aware of the altered aspect of affairs since the dark deed had been committed. While Archbishop Taché has been condemned for using the authority conferred upon him, and for extending the amnesty to Riel, he no doubt felt himself justified, under the grave circumstances which threatened the country, to stretch the authority he possessed.
During all this time Mr. Donald Smith had been dili- gently prosecuting the practical object of his mission, to bring the people into direct communication with the Dominion Government through the delegates that had been appointed, and was anxious to get them off He, no doubt, felt it of importance that there should be an evidence of arms being laid down to insure a proper reception for them, though he himself never seems to have consented to an amnesty in any way. On the 16th of March we were made aware of the result of Archbishop Taché's interference by being told that on the following day we were to be released, upon taking an oath that we would not again take up arms in opposition to the provisional government. I advised the prisoners, one and all, not to hesitate to take this oath, thus illegally enforced, before granting our release. The oath was administered to each by Lepine. One half of the pris- oners were released one day and the other half on the following day. I remained in the Fort receiving the hospitality of the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company until I saw that all the prisoners had been released. Unfortunately, for some reason, Riel still retained Murdoch Macleod, who had been confined with the chains on all this time, and I could not leave the Fort until his release was guaranteed.
With the release of the prisoners ended the exciting part of the insurrection organized by Riel. The winter passed over without greater disaster than the death of Senator Sutherland's son, the murder of poor Scott, and the death of the French half-breed, Parisien. Had hostilities been provoked, or the first shot in anger fired, the country in its isolated position would probably have been handed over to a scene of rapine, murder and pillage, fearful to contemplate, through the excitement of the Indian population whose savage nature cannot be controlled when the opportunity for warfare presents itself. But, fortunately for Canada and fortunately for the Hudson's Bay Company, the critical period passed, and the task of Sir Garnet Wolseley, upon whose shoulders afterwards fell the duty of enforcing law and order in this fair heritage of the British Crown, enabled him to march in peacefully and hand over the reins of government to the civil authorities, now constituted by Act of Parliament. To the Bishop of Rupert's Land, Judge Black, Mr. Donald A. Smith, Archdeacon McLean, and the Rev. Mr. Young, is chiefly due the salvation of the settlement through the winter by the prudence of their policy and the influence of their counsels. There were so many inflammable elements and such a strong feeling against Riel's tyranny, that there was constant danger of another uprising, and only great tact and prudence pre- vented this further calamity.
In two days I left my prison walls for the English settlements, and upon the advice of friends I at once took my departure for Canada, for the purpose of giving such -information to the Government as they might desire. I made the journey across the prairies on sleds, with Judge Black, who was on his way to Ottawa, on the delegation commissioned to confer with the Government. On reaching Ontario, I found the greatest excitement prevailing over the news of Scott's murder, which had sent a thrill of horror through the whole of Upper Canada. I found that Dr. Schultz had just arrived, having performed the marvelous task of marching on snowshoes through a forest country, from the Lower Fort to Duluth, a distance of about 500 miles, under the guidance of a faithful halfbreed, named Monkman. In the late rebellion a son of the latter was convicted of supporting Riel, and apparently had not inherited the loyal instincts of his brave father. The doctor was also accompanied by William Drever. Dr. Schultz's march indicates the great powers of endurance he at that time possessed; for he passed through an immense region, poorly supplied with pro- visions, through deep snow, in continual danger of losing his way, and with the knowledge that he might be pursued. But he arrived in safety, to be a hero among his countrymen.
On the arrival at Ottawa of Father Richot and Alfred Scott, the other two delegates nominated by the Convention, they were at once arrested for complicity in the murder of Scott, whose brother was in Ottawa, and who, with the friends of the murdered man, secured their arrest. They were, however, released for want of direct evidence to implicate them. After their release they assumed the official capacity in which they had come to the country, as delegates to arrange the terms by which the interests of their country were to be protected. These negotiations resulted in a Bill being passed by Parliament, creating the Province of Manitoba, the boundary of which was at the time designedly limited by the Act. The half-breeds gained substantial advantages in a grant of one million four hundred thousand acres, to be set apart in reserve for them and all the children belonging to them, at the date of the transfer. On computation this was found to be two hundred and forty acres for each child, and one hundred and sixty acres for each head of a family, besides a patent for the homes they occupied.
The new province had a constitution granted it, giving it self-government, based upon the system which prevailed elsewhere in Canada, and giving it representatives in both Houses of Parliament, as well as control over its local affairs.
Although the results gained for the half-breeds by Riel's insurrection appear to be advantageous, yet the half-breeds put very little value on the two hundred and forty acres of scrip that had been issued to each. This land-grant they almost immediately sold for a song, ranging from fifteen dollars upwards. Thus nearly the whole of the one million four hundred thousand acres became the property of non-residents, who in consequence of the cheap rate at which they acquired the property could allow it to remain to accumulate in value with the development of the country. This has been very prejudicial to the interests of that portion of Manitoba which it was designed to benefit; for at Winnipeg, on entering the gateway of the country, the stranger is met on all sides by vast unoccupied tracts of valuable lands which are not only unproductive, but handicap the industry of the population, and retard the progress of the provincial capital. In some respects, however, the Government were wise in yielding to the pressure that was brought to bear upon them; for agitation would have been kept up by interested parties to secure the local advantage of self-government.
Upon the structure which the Dominion Act created has been built up the now magnificent Province of Manitoba, which possesses excellent laws, and is yearly adding to the comfort and prosperity of its inhabitants. Since the founding of the province it has been enlarged, at the solicitation of the people, and readily granted by the Dominion Government. Curiously enough, the western bounds of the province were fixed at the twenty-ninth range, instead of being continued a few miles farther, to the one hundred and second meridian, where a new system of surveys again commences from another meridian line. It will no doubt yet be found convenient, as well as advantageous, for the people in this narrow strip to have themselves included in the boundaries of the province, which will then make it coterminous with the old district of Assiniboia, formerly under the rule of the Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company.
Although the delegates appointed by the provisional government had been received at Ottawa, and their terms acceded to, yet the Government were not prepared to take over the country from the Hudson's Bay Company, unless an armed force was sent to support its authority. Otherwise there was nothing to prevent Riel from continuing to exercise the authority he had usurped. Negotiations were therefore opened by the Dominion Government with the view of sending an armed force into the country, which the English Government sanctioned, Canada to pay three-fourths of the cost. But before the English Government would allow the troops to start it was required of Canada that the rights and privileges of the existing population should be respected, and the English Government were to be the judges in case an agreement was not arrived at. The force was to consist of British Regulars and Canadian Militia, the whole to be put under the command of Colonel (now Lord) Wolseley; and he at once set about making preparations for the expedition.
In the midst of the preparations I returned to Toronto, and was anxious to have all opportunity of joining the force, but I found that the Dominion Government had excluded from its ranks all those who had been in any way mixed up with the troubles during the previous winter, which was to me a great disappointment. The expedition was to be one of peace for the purpose solely of reestablishing law and order. Naturally, however, its departure for the North-West created a great deal of excitement throughout Canada, whose people were about entering upon their new possessions amidst military preparations, which, however, had the beneficial effect of bringing the country more prominently before the eyes of the world.
Sir Garnet Wolseley selected the route for his expedition by way of the chain of lakes and rivers which had been so frequently used during early explorations, as well as by the traders of the North-West Company. Colonel Crofton, on one occasion, took his troops to the Red River by this route, and Lord Selkirk, in his struggles with the North-West Company, had also brought troops over it. The history of this expedition is an exceedingly interesting one.
The expedition was admirably managed throughout, not a single life being lost. It forms the first of a series of exploits under the leadership of Colonel Wolseley, which have reflected much credit on his gallantry and administrative ability. He is affectionately regarded and held in high esteem by Canadians, among whom he long resided, and who watch his career with the deepest interest and with pride in his success.
Colonel Wolseley arrived at Fort Garry on the 24th day of August, 1870, and Riel only gave up the reins of power a few moments before his arrival, preferring not to remain to render an account of his short but iniquitous reign.
The rule of the Hudson's Bay Company, in the absence of any other constituted civil authority, was at once reinstated by Sir Garnet Wolseley, in the person of Mr. Donald A. Smith, the Chief Commissioner, who played so important a part throughout the troubles. He in turn, a few days after, handed the country over to the Hon. Adams Archibald,who had been appointed Lieut. Governor in the place of the Hon. Wm. Macdougall, and who arrived on the 2nd of September. The Queen's proclamation was read, and all the legal requirements were complied with to make the old Hudson's Bay Territory part and parcel of the Dominion, and a new era commenced in the development of the reign(sic). Colonel Wolseley, without delay, despatched his regular soldiers on their return journey to Quebec, leaving the two battalions of Canadian Militia, under Colonels Jarvis and Cassault, to preserve law and order, and protect the settlement.
On Sir Garnet Wolseley's arrival, Riel quietly slipped across the river, where he was sheltered by his friends. A warrant for his arrest was procured by private individuals, and he withdrew from the country and took up his residence at St. Joe, an American village on the boundary line. The feeling was very strong against him; but, on the other hand, his own people applauded the success of his winter's work, and the settlement was still in constant danger from the excited population.
Lieut. Governor Archibald and his successor, Lieut. Governor Morris, had a most difficult task to perform during their terms of office. They were isolated from Ottawa, the means of communication with which were still slow. They had an excited population to deal with, that took totally different views of the events which led to the acquisition of the North-West Territory by Canada. By their prudence, firmness and moderation, however, they avoided very serious difficulties,which might have befallen the country. Individuals are not apt at all times to weigh their words or consider their actions in places of trust, or to feel their responsibility in the administrative affairs of a nation. It is this that frequently leads to difficulties, which often get beyond the control of the civil authorities.
The most delicate subject the Government had to deal with during this period was the question of a general amnesty. When Archbishop Taché arrived in March he took upon himself the responsibility of promising a full and complete amnesty on behalf of the Governor-General; and he and Father Richot pressed with the utmost vigour, by correspondence and by interviews, the fulfillment of this promise. Archbishop Taché claimed that the condition of the country warranted his making this promise of an amnesty, and having once made it, he would be considered to have deceived the people did he not make every effort to keep his word.
The position the Government assumed was that the country not having been a part of Canada at the time of the troubles, the amnesty question was one for the imperial authorities alone to deal with. A document that bears upon that question is worthy of insertion here, namely, an Order-in-Council, of the 4th June, 1873, which states the then position of affairs, previous to which a lengthened correspondence had taken place between Archbishop Taché and the Government. I append copy of this report to His Excellency the Governor-General, dated 4th June, l873:-
"The Committee of the Privy Council beg to submit to your Excellency, that having their attention called to the desire expressed by the Legislature of Manitoba, and by many of Her Majesty's subjects residing in that province, that an amnesty should be granted by Her Majesty to those concerned in the disturbances which occurred in the North-West Territories in 1869 and 1870, and the subject having been pressed upon the Government of Canada, whose intervention has been asked, the Committee beg leave to report that these unfortunate occurrences took place before the North-West Territory was acquired by the Dominion, and therefore before the Government of Canada had any control over the country or authority in the administration of its affairs. The Committee very respectfully submit that, in their opinion, although the right of extending the clemency of the Crown in criminal cases is amongst the high functions entrusted to Your Excellency, the exercise of that power is limited by the royal instructions to the cases of individual criminals after conviction, and does not confer upon you the power of granting a general amnesty or special pardon before trial. No trials or convictions have yet been had against any one concerned in the troubles referred to, and the Committee of the Privy Council believe that the power to grant the amnesty asked for by the Legislature of Manitoba rests only with Her Majesty
"The Legislature of Manitoba having arrived at the conclusion that the time has come when the subject may be dealt with, and having conveyed their opinion in that sense to the Government of the Dominion, the Committee of the Privy Council respectfully request that Your Excellency will be pleased to bring the matter before Her Majesty's Government, in order that such course may be taken as may be thought consistent with the interests of justice and best for the quiet of the country."
In the autumn of 1870, the Fenians took advantage of the excited state of the country to make a raid, at the instigation of O'Donohue and others, who were intriguing against its peace. "General" O'Neil managed to find his way to the borders with an armed force, invaded the territory, and took possession of the Hudson's Bay post at Pembina. O'Neil, however, was promptly followed by the American troops and compelled to return. Finding that the American authorities were firm in their desire to preserve international amity, he abandoned the enterprise. In the meantime the settlement was thrown into great excitement and alarm, and Governor Archibald issued a proclamation asking for volunteers to serve against the Fenians. Shortly after the issue of this proclamation he received a letter from Riel, Lepine, and Perenteau, telling him that they had organized several companies of halfbreeds for service against the Fenians, and containing assurances of loyalty. The Governor went over to St. Boniface to inspect these volunteers, and publicly thanked them for their services, shaking hands with them as they marched by, Reil and Lepine being present. In his communication to Sir John Macdonald on the subject, the Governor says in reference to this act:-
"If the Dominion has at this moment a province to defend and not one to conquer, they owe it to the policy of forbearance. If I had driven the French half-breeds into the hands of the enemy, O'Donohue would have been joined by all the population between the Assiniboine and the frontier; Fort Garry would have passed into the hands of an armed mob, and the English settlers to the north of the Assiniboine would have suffered horrors which makes me shudder to contemplate."
The Government felt, however, that Riel was playing a double game. He continued to be a menace to the peace of the settlement, and realizing the difficulties of protecting the country, should its peace be broken, Sir John Macdonald arranged with Archbishop Taché to get Riel to leave the territory. To effect this the Government sent Archbishop Taché $1,000 to pay Riel's expenses, but this sum was not considered sufficient, and on Governor Archibald's guaranteeing to repay the amount, Mr. Donald A. Smith, then Chief Commissioner of the Hudson's Bay Company, advanced $3,000 more to Archbishop Taché, which was some time after repaid by the Dominion Government.
In September, 1872, Riel was nominated to the House of Commons for Provencher, but he declined the nomination in favour of Sir George Cartier. In 1873, in consequence of Sir George Cartier's death, Riel was elected by acclamation for the same constituency, and in the election of 1874 he was again returned. Some time in March of that year, Riel signed the roll in the clerk's room of the House of Commons at Ottawa, without any one being aware that he was in the capital. The question was brought up in Parliament, and by a vote of 124 to 68, Riel was expelled from the House, but was again returned by his constituents. In October, 1874, Lepine was tried for the murder of Scott, convicted and sentenced to death, while a warrant of outlawry was issued against Riel by the Court of Queen's Bench of Manitoba. Lord Dufferin sent a despatch to Earl Carnarvon, Secretary of State for the Colonies, reviewing at length the circumstances which were urged as entitling Riel and Lepine to clemency, placing especial stress upon Lieut.-Governor Archibald's acceptance of their services on the occasion of the threatened Fenian invasion, and the public expression of confidence and thanks tendered them by the representative of the Crown in Manitoba. In reference to the application for a commutation of Lepine's sentence, he said :- "This commutation, when the proper time arrives, I propose to order on my own responsibility, under the powers accorded me by my instruments." In January, 1875, Earl Carnarvon stated that in Lepine's case, neither amnesty nor entire pardon was possible, but that his sentence should be commuted; that Riel should have similar punishment, and that both should be politically disqualified. The next day Lepine's sentence was commuted to two years' imprisonment, and he was deprived of his political rights. On the 12th February an amnesty was granted, to Riel and Lepine, on condition of five years' banishment and forfeiture of political rights. Lepine, however, having already served a portion of his sentence, preferred to complete his term in lieu of banishment.
Another duty that fell to the lot of Lieut.-Governors Archibald and Morris, was the extinction of the Indian title by treaty. Governor Archibald, with the assistance of Indian Commissioners, negotiated the Stone Fort and Manitoba Post treaties, or treaties numbers one and two. The Hon. Mr. Morris negotiated treaties numbers three, four, five and six respectively, called the North-West Angle treaty, the Qu'Appelle treaty, the Winnipeg treaty, the treaties at Forts Carleton and Pitt. The Blackfoot treaty, number seven, was negotiated by Lieut. Governor Laird, when Lieut.-Governor of the North-West Territory.
In 1875 a circumstance occurred which might have resulted in difficulty for the country, had it not been for the prompt action of Lieutenant-Governor Morris. He received information that Gabriel Dumont had organized a provisional government in the Batoche district, where a new settlement had the previous year been started. It was ostensibly established for the purpose of governing the half-breeds, on the principle that used to prevail in their hunting expeditions. This act Governor Morris realized would excite the Indians. General Selby Smyth, with two officers, had been visiting him in Winnipeg, on his way across the continent to British Columbia, and had already left for Fort Pelly to visit the Mounted Police stationed there, when this information was received. He had been gone two days; but Mr. Morris despatched Captain Cotton after him to advise him of the circumstance, and requesting him to take a detachment of Mounted Police and visit the disaffected region. At the same time Mr. Morris availed himself of the services of the Rev. Mr. Macdougall, who was then in Winnipeg, and who had the misfortune afterwards of being frozen to death, having lost his way in a blizzard, far away from any settlement. He entrusted Mr. Macdougall with a despatch to the Indians, signed and sealed with his official authority as Governor of the North-West Territory, and despatched him with all haste to the western tribes, counselling them to be quiet, and promising to visit them the following year, which he faithfully did. General Smyth took a detachment of fifty Mounted Police from Fort Pelly and visited Batoche, and had an interview with Gabriel Dumont, who agreed to abandon his enterprise. Having done this, the Mounted Police were sent back, and General Selby Smyth continued on his way across the continent. This, among many other similar events in the history of the North-West Territory during the last fifteen years, shows the disturbing element that existed among the half-breeds and Indians and the facile material Riel found ready to work upon to enable him to carry out his schemes.
Riel, being banished the country, took up his residence for a time at St. Joe, and in 1878 went to Sun River, Montana. There he taught in an industrial school, where he remained until waited upon by the delegates from the Saskatchewan. In Montana he seems to have illegally mixed himself up in the politics of the country, according to the newspaper accounts, which occasionally came to hand. There, at any rate, the delegates found him, and, as we shall see, induced him to return to the territories and again bring trouble upon the country.
The country now settled down to peaceful pursuits, and a gradual stream of immigration came in, penetrating everywhere, in advance of surveys, as fancy dictated. The province of Manitoba organized its governmental machinery, and laid the foundation of the laws of the country, under the inspiration of the native population, which was, however, gradually absorbed in the new elements that so rapidly came into the territory. It is worthy of remark here, and to the credit of the excellent educational institutions established under the Hudson's Bay Company rule, that a native of the country, the Hon. Mr. Norquay, has for many years occupied the highest position in its political life.
The population, being scattered far and wide over the country, the Government found it necessary to organize a Mounted Police force, to institute legal machinery in the scattered districts, and to throw over the whole country its protecting arm. The force was temporarily organized by Col. Osborne Smith, then Deputy Adjutant-General. It was afterwards commanded by Col. French, now commandant of the militia of one of the Australian colonies (brother of Captain French who was killed in the capture of Batoche). Subsequently it was commanded by Col. McLeod, now Stipendiary Magistrate of the North-West, and by Col. Irvine, who is its present head. The force was at first composed of three hundred men; afterwards it was increased to five hundred; and, in consequence of the late troubles, has again been increased to one thousand strong.
Having now attempted to supply a narrative of the old rebel[ion, I shall endeavour to give an account of the present one, which, unfortunately, was far more disastrous in its effects upon the lives and property of the people. Happily, in the new outbreak, the Government was enabled to assert the power and dignity of the country; and in this it was in no small degree aided by the means of communication afforded by the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
I conclude the narrative of these events with an extract from the General Orders of the Red River Expeditionary Force, and with a list of the officers of the Canadian Militia who took part in the expedition:-
"To the Soldiers of the Militia Regiments of the Red River Expeditionary Force:-
"In saying 'good-bye' I beg that each and all of you will accept my grateful recognition of your valuable services, and my best thanks for the zeal you have displayed in carrying out my orders.
"I congratulate you upon the success of our expedition, which has secured to this country a peaceable solution of its late troubles. The credit of this success is due to the gallant soldiers I had at my back ; upon you fell the labour of carrying boats and heavy loads, a labour in which officers and men vied with each other as to who should do the most. Nothing but that 'pluck' for which British soldiers, whether born in the colonies or in the mother country, are celebrated, could have carried you so successfully through the arduous advance upon this place.
"From Prince Arthur's Landing to Fort Garry is over 600 miles through a wilderness of forest and water, where no supplies of any description are obtainable. You had to carry on your backs a vast amount of supplies over no less than forty-seven portages, making a total distance of seven miles, a feat unparalleled in our military annals. You have descended a great river esteemed so dangerous from its rapids, falls and whirlpools that none but experienced voyageurs attempt its navigation. Your cheerful obedience to orders has enabled you, under the blessing of Divine Providence, to accomplish your task without any accident.
"Although the banditti who had been oppressing this people fled at your approach without giving you an opportunity of proving how men capable of such labour could fight, you have deserved as well of your country as you had won a battle.
"Some evil-designing men have endeavoured to make a section of this people believe that they have much to dread at your hands. I beg of you to give them the lie to such a foul aspersion upon your character as Canadian soldiers by continuing to comport yourselves as you have hitherto done.
"I desire to warn you especially against mixing yourself up in party affairs here: to be present at any political meeting, or to join in any political procession, is strictly against Her Majesty's Regulations - a fact which I am sure you have only to know to be guided by.
"I can say without flattery, that although I have served many armies in the field I have never been associated with a better set of men. You have much yet to learn of your profession, but you have only to attend as carefully to the orders of the officer to whose command I now hand you over as you have to mine to become shortly a force second to none in Her Majesty's service.
"My best thanks are due especially to Lieut.-Colonels Jarvis and Cassault for the punctuality with which they have executed their orders.
"I bid you all good-bye with no feigned regret; I will ever look back with pleasure and pride to having commanded you, and, although separated from you by thousands of miles I shall never cease to take an earnest interest in your welfare.
"(Signed) G. J. WOLSELEY,
"Commanding Red River Expeditionary Force.
"Fort Garry, Sept. 9, l870."
MILITIA GENERAL ORDERS.
12th May, 1870.
GENERAL ORDERS (17).
No. 1.-ACTIVE MILITIA.
The formation to date from 1st instant of two battalions of riflemen from existing corps of active militia for service in the "North-West" is hereby authorized to be styled respectively, the First (or Ontario) Battalion of Riflemen and the Second (or Quebec) Battalion of Riflemen, and the appointments thereto are as follows, viz.:-
1st (or Ontario) Battalion of Riflemen.
To be Lieutenant-Colonel:
Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel Peters Jarvis.
To be Major:
Major Griffiths Wainewright.
To be Captains:
Major Thomas Scott,
Major Thomas Macklem,
Major William Macauley Herchmer,
Captain William Smith,
Captain Alexander R. Macdonald,
Captain and Adjutant Henry Cooke,
Captain Daniel Hunter McMillan.
To be Lieutenants:
Captaiii and Adjutant Donald A. Macdonald,
Captain David M. Walker,
Captain and Adjutant William N. Kennedy,
Captain Andrew McBride,
Captain and Adjutant William J. McMurtry,
Captain Samuel Bruce Harman,
Lieutenant James Benson.
To be Ensigns:
Captain and Adjutant A. J. L. Peebles,
Lieutenant Stewart Mulvey,
Lieutenant Josiah Jones Bell,
Lieutenant Samuel Hamilton,
Lieutenant John Biggar,
Lieutenant William Hill Nash.
Ensign Hugh John Macdonald.
To be Paymaster:
Captain J. F. B. Morrice.
To be Adjutant, with the rank of Captain:
Captain William James Baker Parsons.
To be Quarter-Master:
Quarter-Master Edward Armstrong.
To be Surgeon:
Surgeon Alfred Codd, M.D.
2nd (or Quebec) Battalion of Riflemen.
To be Lieutenant-Colonel:
Lieutenant-Colonel Louis Adolphe Cassault.
To be Major:
Major Acheson G. Irvine.
To be Captains:
Lieutenant-Colonel L. C. A. L. de Bellefeuille.
Major Allan Macdonald,
Major Jacques Labranche,
Captain Samuel Macdonald,
Captain Jean Baptiste Amyot
Captain John Fraser,
Captain William John Barrett.
To be Lieutenants:
Captain Josephus W. Vaughan,
Captain John Price Fletcher,
Captain Edward T. H. F. Patterson,
Captain Maurice E. B. Duchesnay,
Captain Henri Bouthillier,
Captain Leonidas de Salaberry,
Lieutenant Oscar Prevost.
To be Ensigns:
Captain Ed. S. Bernard,
Captain John Allan,
Lieutenant George Simard,
Lieutenant Gabriel Louis Des George,
Ensign Alphonse de Montenach Henri D'Eschambault,
Ensign William Wilmount Ross,
Ensign Alphonse Tetu.
To be Paymaster:
Lieutenant C. Auguste Larue.
To be Adjutant, with the rank of Captain:
Major F. D. Gagnier.
To be Quarter-Master:
Riding-Master F. Villiers.
To be Surgeon:
F. L. A. Neilson, Esquire.
The following staff appointments in connection with the militia corps for service in the North-West are hereby made, Viz.:-
To be Assistant Brigade-Major:
Major James F. McLeod.
To be Assistant Control Officer:
Captain A. Peebles.
To be Orderly Officer to the Officer in Commmand of Expeditionary Force:
Lieutenant Frederick Charles Denison.