THE NORTH-WEST REBELLIONS

CHAPTER  I

RAISING OF THE 100TH REGIMENT

In 1858, a favourable opportunity presented itself for me to join the British army, of which I, a lad of sixteen, took eager advantage. The Canadian newspapers were at the time full of the 100th Regiment, which was being raised in the colony for service in India. I had just left Upper Canada College, and, with youthful enthusiasm, was anxious to see something of the world; and a military career seemed to offer a coveted opportunity for gratifying my tastes. There was not at that time the facilities for joining the British army that now offers through the Royal Military College. I had to make enquiries as to what the 100th Regiment was, how it was to be raised, and what chance there was of obtaining a commission.

Previous to the time of which I write, England was horror-stricken at the atrocities of the Sepoy mutiny in India; her Indian empire was at stake, and a handful of English people, who at that time occupied and governed the East Indian Dominions, were in grave peril. The country had hardly recovered from the effects of the Crimean War when this mutiny broke out. A large portion of the English militia had been called out; twenty-five battalions had been raised, and the demands upon England's recruiting power were exhausting the available supply. For the first time in the history of the mother-country England came to one of her great colonies to assist her in recruiting her army, a fact interesting to the Canadian people, as it led to the formation of the first colonial regiment ever furnished for British service abroad.

I cannot pass on without gibing some reminiscences of the first ten years' service of the 100th Regiment, which in 1885 marched out of Canada twelve hundred strong. So many of its members are still scattered throughout Canada, that my brief narrative, I venture to think, may not be unacceptable.

The Governor-General, Sir Edmund Walker Head, was entrusted with the authority necessary to raise the regiment and to appoint the Canadian officers. He was to select from among Canadians the whole of the men, four ensigns, eight lieutenants, six captains, and one major. The remaining officers were to be appointed from the army on the arrival of the regiment in England. The colonelcy was given to the Baron de Rottenburg, Adjutant-General of Militia, an experienced military man well qualified to take command.

Obtaining my parent's consent, and accompanied by my father, I set out for Toronto to wait upon Sir Edmund Head with an application for a commission. To my chagrin I learned that all the commissions had been given away; but I was relieved at finding that each commission carried with it the responsibility of having to raise a certain number of men. The major had to raise two hundred; each captain, eighty; and each lieutenant, forty men. Having received a promise from the Governor- General that, should a vacancy occur, I might obtain it, I immediately returned, determined to raise forty men, and trust to the failure of some officer in procuring the required number.

My father supplied me with what necessary funds I wanted, lent me his waggon and a pair of horses, and I engaged a friend who played the bagpipes, the only musical instrument I could procure in the neighbourhood, for recruiting purposes. With an old-fashioned uniform, lent me by an officer who had early settled in the country, I started off to visit the neighbouring villages to recruit; and I need hardly say that I was the envy and admiration of every youth of my own age who witnessed my progress through the country. At the end of a fortnight I had got together twenty of as fine, young, backwoods fellows as one could wish to see. With them I marched to Cobourg, thence to Toronto, to have them accepted by the authorities, after which I returned to complete the number necessary to qualify for the commission of lieutenant. I might here say that I secured my first detachment in Peterborough and Lindsay, two growing towns in the interior; and in the neighbouring counties, taking a different route, in the direction of Campbellford and Percy, I was not long in obtaining the full compliment. Great consternation was occasioned in some families who were not accustomed in Canada to have call from the. recruiting-sergeant. One young fellow in Peterborough, named Skeffington, I had great difficulty in secreting from his mother, who was nearly heartbroke at the prospect of losing him. He afterwards became a first-class musician, receiving his first training in the band, and never repented of his venture.

My enterprise was successful. As it happened, one the officers elect dropped out, and I obtained a commission as ensign.

The regiment was thoroughly Canadian, having been recruited in a similar manner to that which I have related, by the various officers in the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec; many of the men being of French origin.

Lieutenant Alexander R. Dunn, of Toronto, an old Upper Canada College boy, and son of a former Receiver. General, was appointed Major. He had distinguished himself in the charge at Balaclava, as an officer of the 11th Hussars, and for his bravery had received the Victoria Cross. Lieutenant Dunn was the only cavalry officer who received the Victoria Cross in the Crimea. It was presented to the general officer of the cavalry to award, and by the general consent of the survivors Of all ranks the choice fell upon him. Dunn having resigned his commission in the 11th, was on a visit to Toronto at the opportune moment, and was anxious to join the 100th, and, as I have said, was successful in obtaining the majority.

The remainder of the Canadian officers for the contingent were selected from the militia in Upper and Lower Canada, and the regiment was organized in the old historic citadel of Quebec.

The regiment, for want of a better, was uniformed in the relics of bygone ages, stowed away among the military stores of the country. It only lacked "pigtails and powder" to make it appear as if one of the Duke's veteran battalions of the Peninsula had come to life. Especially curious to the people of England was the motley uniform of the 100th, for the old coatee had been long forgotten; and on our arrival in England we marched to Shorncliffe Camp in this picturesque but obsolete uniform. The English people wondered what kind of soldiers had landed on their shores.

In the months of June and July, 1858, the regiment embarked from Quebec in three detachments. The first under Colonel de Rottenburg, commanding; the second under Colonel Gordon, of the 17th Regiment; and the third under Major Dunn. We were joined at Shorncliffe by the army officers appointed to fill up the quota, several of whom were promoted from the 32nd, for their heroic services in the defence of Lucknow. Regulation uniforms - scarlet, with blue facings - were at once furnished the regiment, and non-commissioned officers from the Guards in London were sent for six months to drill all ranks, from the "goose step" up. The regiment was accorded the title of "The Prince of Wales Royal Canadian Regiment," and the Prince himself, then only seventeen years old, presented the colours, this being the first public act he performed by virtue of his position. Ensigns Moorsom and Ridout, the two seniors of that rank, receiving them from his hands.

The average height of the men was five feet seven inches, a high standard; and under the drill of the non-commissioned officers of the Guards, they soon became proficient in their duties, and acquired so soldierly a bearing that it would be difficult for friends left behind in Canada to recognize them.

Shorncliffe Camp had accommodation for half a dozen battalions, and was a pleasant station, situated on the south coast of England, with high, commanding cliffs overlooking the sea, the French coast being within sight. It was, moreover, within easy reach of Folkstone and Dover, whence the Channel boats ply between the respective ports of Boulogne and Calais. The regiment spent nine months here, and was then ordered to Aldershot, where camp life was on a larger and grander scale. Here, at that time, were about thirty thousand troops who took part in a grand review, under the Duke of Cambridge, and were inspected by Her Majesty the Queen. In a few weeks, marching orders for Gibraltar were issued, the state of Europe at the time leading us to hope that active service was possible. The regiment embarked at Portsmouth in the year 1859, and in a few days was upon the scene of the famed battle of Trafalgar and within sight of "Old Gib."

Gibraltar rises out of the sea like a huge beaver (the most apt illustration to a Canadian); Europa Point sloping towards the sea, forming, as it were, the flat tail of the beaver, and its head towards Spain, at which point its height is nearly 1,500 feet. The rock commands a portion of the Straits of Gibraltar, and with Cape Tarifa on the Spanish coast and the bold shores of Africa on the south, enclose the straits, which are about fifteen miles wide. Gibraltar and the Spanish Main form a magnificent bay, celebrated in history by the capture, in 1704, of the famous rock-citadel, and its gallant defence, from 1779 to 1782, against the combined forces of France and Spain. A peculiar feature here is, that while the tide rises to an immense height on the Atlantic entrance to the straits, within a few miles, on the Mediterranean side, the tide ceases, hence the latter is called the "tideless sea." The current runs from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean at a rapid rate, and vessels from the bay are frequently wind-bound, being unable to beat against the strong current. It was no unusual thing see at one time several hundred vessels, wind-bound a month, waiting a favourable breeze to carry them through; and a grand sight to view them from the New Mole Guard at morning's dawn, with full canvas set, simultaneously taking advantage of the first fair wind. Strong tugs, I believe, are now used to tow vessels out. Gibraltar is a place of marvellous strength, carrying in her batteries and galleries some fifteen hundred guns, all pointing towards the bay and Spanish mainland and straits. The Mediterranean side is inaccessible, on account of its perpendicular rock rising many hundred feet from the level of the sea. Out of the rock have been cut galleries with port-holes for cannon; and it is possible to point from these galleries and batteries more than a hundred guns at a ship lying in any part of the bay. The only ice ever formed there is, on rare occasions, at the signal station on the top of the rock.

The regiment was stationed at Gibraltar from 1859 until 1863, during which period many stirring events occurred in Europe and America, which, however, did not disturb the peacefulness of the garrison. Notable among these events were Garibaldi's strike for liberty, the war between France and Austria, that between Germany and Austria; and from the rock could be observed through powerful glasses the fight that was going on between Spain and Morocco on the opposite coast. The most memorable event, however, that occurred during this period was the great Civil War in America, which astounded the world by its numerous battles, the vastness of the resources displayed, and the determination of "the Northerners," at any hazard, to maintain the integrity of their country.

We had the opportunity of witnessing from the top of the rock the burning by the Sumter of several vessels at more than a league distant from us on the Mediterranean side, and the quiet episode of the two American vessels which immediately afterwards occupied our waters in the Bay of Gibraltar. The Confederate cruiser Sumter, under the command of the celebrated Captain Semmes, had taken shelter under the guns, and the American war-vessel Kearsarge, Captain Winslowe in command, kept quiet watch in Algesciras Bay to see that she did not escape to commit depredations upon American shipping. It was interesting to see the commanders of these vessels occasionally reading thgether in our library, and enjoying the hospitality of our clubs, the officers of both vessels being entertained in turn by the officers of the 100th Regiment. We were startled one day by the news that Captain Semrnes and his officers had taken passage in the mail steamer for England, there to take command of the Alabama which afterward gained such notoriety. The Captain of the Kearsarge was not slow, however, in following Semmes, whom he finally brought to bay and defeated, in the naval fight near Cherbourg. Captain Semmes with his crew escaped in a steam yacht, the Deerhound, to England, a hero for the while.

Life in Gibraltar was full of instruction and amusement. While we were stationed there it was garrisoned by seven thousand men, engineers, artillery, and infantry. It was also the station for several men-of-war, with occasional visits from the Mediterranean and Channel fleets There was, moreover, good opportunity for visiting the two interesting countries, Spain and Africa, which were both within easy reach Periodically, the Minister for Morocco, Sir John Drummond Hay, paid State visits to the Emperor in the city of Morocco, on various public missions. It was the ambition of officers to have the privilege of accompanying him on these interesting trips, but one or two only were allowed to go I was anxious to make this trip, but it was difficult for an ensign to obtain such a privilege, as there were so many senior officers desirous of going. Nevertheless I determined to make an effort, and went about it in an indirect way. A young officer of my own age, named Prior, now a Lieutenant-Colonel, and myself obtained six weeks' leave to go shooting in Africa. To get across the Straits, we applied to the Captain of the Port, now Admiral Ommaney, for leave to go in the gunboat Recipole, which was to convey Sir John Hay down the coast to Mogador. This was granted, and on arriving at Tangiers, Sir John Hay gave us permission to accompany him as far as Mogador on our shooting expedition, warning us at the same time that we must not expect to go further. We had, however, the pleasure and privilege of accompanying Sir John on his mission throughout. Some presents customary to be given on such visits had been sent out to the Emperor by the Queen, but as these had not arrived we were left at Mazagan to await the coming of Lord Dangan, who was expected with them. Lord Dangan, however, did not arrive with the presents. When they came forward, we consequently went on with them, under an escort of Moorish cavalry, to Morocco. This was a somewhat hazardous trip at that time, on account of the disturbed state of the tribes. I got a sunstroke on the trip, which compelled me to return to Gibraltar before its termination, but not, however, without having seen one of the most interesting parts of Africa and the relics of Moorish grandeur.

The following year an opportunity presented itself of paying a visit to Canada with a friend, who intended venturing across the Atlantic in his yacht of a hundred tons burden. Having obtained leave, we sailed from Gibraltar on the twenty-third of March, and after visiting Xeres, famous for its sherry, and Seville, the capital of Andalusia, sailed from Cadiz on the thirtieth inst., straight west to the Azores, thence north to St. John's, Newfoundland. As far as the Azores we enjoyed beautiful weather, but from these islands until we reached St. John's, on the first of May, there was a continuous succession of severe gales. Our intention was to go up the St. Lawrence to Quebec, but the ice had not gone out of the river. We saw two or three shipwrecked crews badly frozen in their open boats attempting to get in during that cold and stormy period. Our plans were changed in consequence. I took steamer for Canada by way of Boston, and my friend intended remaining to have some fishing, and was shortly to follow in his yacht, and pick me up at Halifax on my return from Ontario. Unfortunately, however, while off the Banks, his yacht was wrecked on an iceberg, but he and his crew were saved in the gig. At St John's Newfoundland, the people viewed with astonishment this little yacht anchored in their Bay, supposed by some to have been sent out by the Prince of Wales, who had visited their island on his trip to Canada and the United States the previous year. After spending two or three months in Canada, I returned to Gibraltar by mail steamer.

It was at Gibraltar I first had the pleasure of meeting General Middleton, Commander of the Canadian Militia, but at the time Brigade-Major of the garrison. I was out yachting with Colonel Dunn in the Straits of Gibraltar, when we had the misfortune to lose overboard Captain Coulson, a brother officer of my regiment. A brother of this officer was recently in Canada as A.D.C. to Lord Dufferin. The sea was running high and the current was against us. After making several ineffectual attempts, under close reef, we found it impossible to put about and pick him up. We cruised about all night, and returned in the early morning to tell the sad tale. A fortnight afterwards occurred an incident of interest. We were out yachting in the Bay, and without any warning, Captain Middleton (now General, Sir Fred. Middleton), who was with us, jumped overboard, and shouted out, "Man overboard," with the view of giving us some practice. We failed to pick him up for half an hour, when he was pretty well exhausted.

Gibraltar is a charming garrison station, with a suffi- cient amount of duty to obtain a thorough military training, guard duty coming round every third night The 100th Regiment embodied in its ranks a large number of educated men. Among these was a young college graduate, who possessed a strong poetic temperament, and was given to rhyming on every possible occasion. While at Gibraltar this youth happened to be on sentry duty, and was accosted by the officer going the rounds, when the following ludicrous dialogue occurred:

Officer:- What are your orders, sir
Sentry: - Sir, my orders were to guard the shot and shell,
Likewise the water in the well,
And all the shrubs and trees about,
And challenge all when lights are out!
Officer:- Who the devil gave you such orders, sir?
Sentry: - Sir, these were the orders I received
From the sentry I relieved.

Many similar incidents could be related of our garrison life at this time. The amusements of the place were numerous. A good pack of hounds was kept, which had occasionally been transported across the Straits to run in Africa. There was a spring and autumn race meeting, which was entered into enthusiastically. Cricket and football and all the athletic amusements that soldiers enjoy were also indulged in. The carnival, the chief features of which were the bals masque at the theatre, was among the old standard institutions of the place, and gave rise to many an intngue, creating great interest for on-lookers. Sir William Codrington of Crimean fame, was the Governor of the Garrison, and about that time became father-in-law to the gallant General Earle, then his military secretary, and who lately lost his life in the Soudan.

In 1861 Colonel de Rottenburg retired the service, and, by purchase, Lieutenant-Colonel Dunn succeeded to the command of the regiment. Colonel Dunn,however, did not remain long attached, for he exchanged to the 33rd, then in India, and afterwards was in the Abyssinian one of the few who lost campaign. Colonel Dunn was one of the few who lost his life during the advance on Magdala, having been accidentally shot while out on a day's sport.

Through the courtesy of Colonel Sweeny, formerly of the 4th King's Own, and now a resident of Toronto, I am able to append here the facts connected with the death of Colonel Dunn. As Colonel Sweeny was at the time provost-Marshal of the First Division of the Abyssinian Expeditionary Force, commanded by Lord Napier, and had the painful duty of collecting the evidence of Colonel Dunn's death, the facts may be relied on as related by Colonel Sweeny. Colonel Dunn was a great sportsman and a capital shot, and had gone out on one occasion for a day's shooting on the upper plateau at the head of the Soorow Pass Taking with him a rifle, with hair trigger attachment, he appears to have tired of his exertions, and sat down to rest on a stone, despatching a native attendant for water to a stream near by. On the return of the native, he found the Colonel still seated on the stone, with the rifle lying across his knees. The Colonel, on reaching forward to take a drink from the leather mussack, or Government water-skin, allowed the rifle to slip from his knees, and falling to the ground with some force it exploded the charge in one of the barrels, which entered the Colonel's body, killing him instantly. His body was brought to camp where his loss was mourned by the whole force, for no more popular officer ever commanded the 33rd and he was a general favourite with all ranks composing the expedition. But he was specially beloved by his own men; and seldom was such unfeigned regret seen as was manifested by all officers and men under him at the sad news of his untimely death. He was buried at the little cemetery near the camp with military honours, the whole force being present at the obsequies. A sentinel stone marks his lonely grave.

I may here relate an accident that befel me while in Gibraltar, through the recklessness of an officer, as a practical joke. While returning from my detachment at Catalan Bay, I met some officers who were practising with their pistols. One of them boasted that he could cut a hole through my hat, and to do this he presented his pistol. Turning my head slightly to one side, not dreaming the pistol loaded, I received a severe bullet wound upon the crown of my head. I was immediately a subject for surgical skill, and the doctors assembled to deal with my case. They probed and cut away to ascertain the damage, but my head being so swollen they were unable to find the bullet when cut out two years afterwards, the bullet was found flattened on the skull. In the meantime I recovered; but for a while the officer had painful visions of manslaughter floating before him.

Another interesting reminiscence of our stay in Gibraltar was the arrival of a French man-of-war conveying troops to Mexico, for the aid of Maximilian. The vessel was on fire in her coal hole, and the troop had to be disembarked and the vessel unloaded in order to put out the fire. The troops camped near us on the neutral ground, a strip of land between the British territory and the Spanish mainland. We followed with interest the report of their fortunes for awhile, until the sad death of the unhappy Maximilian.

A reminiscence of sunny Spain would not be complete without recalling the national amusement of bull-fighting, so I shall attempt to give my recollection of the brutal spectacle.

The professional bull-fighter generally joins some itinerant company, which, like a theatrical or circus troop, stars it over the country, going from place to place to pander to the national tastes. The chief is the matador, armed with a finely-edged sword, who puts the finishing stroke to the unfortunate animal after it has been baited for some time in the ring. The matador rises or falls in public estimation according to the skill with which he dispatches his victim. He is an important personage in the social life of Spain; and El Tato, the matador of those days, was supposed to be in high favor with the Spanish Queen. The chulillos, or cloakmen, are armed with large silk cloaks of various colors, with which to distract the attention of the bull. Their skill lies in so placing the cloaks that the bull rushes past them leaving them unharmed, and in this operation they have to be very nimble. The bandilleros are men armed with barb-pointed sticks, decked with ribbons and colored tissue-paper, to worry the bull. The picadors are the horsemen and they are veritable caricatures of their calling. They are usually mounted on the sorriest nags it is possible to find, horses that have been saved from the knackers, so that expense in the destruction of horse-flesh may not interfere with the pastime, for a fairish number of horses have to be sacrificed to make the day's sport meet the satisfac- tion of the audience, and rank with any degree of merit. The men, for their protection, are cased in lead, leather, or heavy woollen clothing, and are an unwieldy, helpless looking lot. They are each armed with a long lance, with a three cornered point to it, which keeps the bull at a respectful distance. Woe betide the unfortunate picador who happens to touch the bull with his lance behind the shoulder, for the wrath of the audience then falls upon his head.

The bulls are bred for the purpose, and are magnifi- cent looking animals, with fine heads and long sym- metrical horns. The bull ring is a large enclosure, surrounded by a wall sufficiently high to prevent the bull jumping in among the audience. Ranged round this enclosure are the spectators, on seats capable of holding from five to ten thousand people. There are no reserved seats or dress circle; but there are privileged positions, priced according to the degree of shade that the spectator is able to pay for, to avoid sitting for several hours in the sweltering sun of a tropical climate. The spectacle is presided over by the highest official in the district, and may be graced by the presence of the Queen. The beginning of the fight is announced by a flourish of trumpets, from trumpeters seated near by the government box, and then the com- pany of bull-fighters march in, headed by the matador, chulillos, picadors, etc., in their picturesque costumes. They form up in front of the presiding officer, when a little speechifying is done, after which they all march past him, the picadors presenting their lances to have their sharp points measured, which are not allowed to be of greater length than three-quarters of an inch. They then take up their stations in the ring to await the fray. A small door alongside the entrance by which they come into the ring is suddenly opened, and a magnificent bull, which is generally goaded a little before entering, to work him up to fighting pitch, rushes into the presence of the enthusiastic spectators. Struck with astonishment at the unusual surroundings, the bull, however, quickly col- lects himself, and spying a chulillo makes a dash for him, which he nimbly eludes by placing his cloak on one side to attract the charge. The bull then rushes on, spies an unfortunate horse, and with his whole force charges down. The picador wards off the charge by his lance, when the now infuriated animal turns and probably this time succeeds in charging another horse, ripping him up with both horns, and overthrowing the picador. The cloakmen now gather round, and attract the bull away with their cloaks so as to save the prostrate, unwieldy man, who, if his horse is able to stand, is replaced on it, and the excitement is kept up for some time further, until probably two or three horses have been killed.

Many hairbreadth escapes occur in the melee and the nimbleness of the bull-fighters, running all over the ring, drawing the bull here and there in its fury, amuse and astonish the spectators. The bull is now beginning to weary and flag, so barbed sticks, covered with variegated tissue-paper, are brought in, and a banderillo, taking one of these, has to face the bull and stick it in the animal's shoulder. This is repeated two or three times, until the bull rushes round with half-a dozen of these sticks dangling about him, tearing his flesh and mangling him. Finally a couple of barbed sticks are used, with fire-crackers attached, and these are driven in and lit, covering him with smoke and fire. The bull is then supposed to be ready for the matador to dispatch. This personage now comes in, with a small square flag and his sword, and, awaiting his opportunity, at the moment when he can get the bull to lower his head to charge, he pierces him in the shoulder-joint with his long blade through the heart, the point of the sword coming out underneath the body. This thrust requires the greatest skill on the part of the matador, so as to plunge his weapon in the vulnerable spot. Any failure to do this brings down the wrath and excitement of the thronged multitude. The whole scene is one of intense excitement, as perilous situations are dexterously avoided by the skilful and active men. Often horses fall under the maddening charges of the bull, the people the while applauding and shouting, showing their signs of approval or disapproval according to the varying circumstances. When the noble animal lies stretched in the ring, the trumpets sound, and four gaily caparisoned mules gallop in and are fastened to his horns, then gallop out again with their mangled burden. Thus ends the first scene. For two pesatas, one has the satisfaction of seeing eight bulls killed in like manner, with about ten to fifteen horses, not to mention two or three accidents to the men, which sometimes prove fatal. It is a brutal sport for a nation to retain in these boasted days of a high civilization.

In the autumn of 1863 we received marching orders for Malta, having spent four pleasant years on the Rock. Several of the regiments with us during this time accompanied us in the change of quarters; the 7th Fusiliers and the 25th King's Own Borderers were of the number.

Malta is distinguished for its ancient aristocracy, though it is sadly degenerated since the days of the Knights of St. John. Altogether, garrison life passed pleasantly there. Our stay was saddened by the loss of many men through an outbreak of cholera. From Malta the regiment was ordered to Montreal, returning to Canada after eight years abroad, and just after the Fenian excitement of 1866.

Canada at this time was strongly garrisoned by British troops, having been sent there in 1861, on the occasion of what is known as the "Trent Affair." The American people approved of the bold conduct of Captain Wilkes in that affair, and the British public resented it as an insult. For a while there were strained relations between the two peoples, hut the good sense of the governing powers at Washington, in giving up the prisoners, avoided what might have been a very serious difficulty. The Emperor Napoleon was anxious to recognize the Southern Confederacy as a belligerent power, but England declined, and the American people were left to deal with their great civil war and to re-establish their government. We expected every moment to be under orders about this time. The Queen, one of H. M. line-of-battle ships, had hammock hooks fastened up for us all ready, but the order never came for embarkation. Canada, however, having been taken advantage of by the Southerners, as a place of refuge where they might concoct schemes on the northern frontier of the United States, to assist their friends on the Southern frontier, was not held blameless by the Federal Government; and the Fenians took advantage of this feeling to commit a series of invasions of Canada, to stir up their Irish compatriots, and to maintain their organization for the personal ends of their leaders. In 1866 a number of the Fenians who had made a descent upon Fort Erie, were captured, tried, sentenced, and imprisoned in the Kingston penitentiary, but through the clemency of the Canadian Government were ultimately released. This was the last serious attempt at Fenian invasion, though the organization is still maintained in the United States.

The 100th Regiment, after arriving in Montreal, was divided into two detachments. The right wing remained in Montreal under the command of Major Cook, while the left wing was sent to Ottawa, to be stationed there, under the command of Colonel Campbell. Upon the completion of ten years' service, in 1868, many officers left, and a great many men preferred to remain in Canada to re-enlisting. The regiment returned to England in 1869 to put in a term of home service, and was thence ordered to India, where it still remains, finishing the usual period of Indian service. For a short time after the regiment was raised, the Home Government kept up a recruiting depot in Canada, under Captain John Clarke; but the expense of transporting troops to England did not justify the maintenance of this recruiting depot. For many reasons this was unfortunate, as there is a true military spirit in Canada, which would have been a decided advantage for the Imperial Government to foster. A considerable portion of the population of Canada sprang from the United Empire Loyalists, who, after the Declaration of Independence of the United States, in 1776, preferred to resign their homes, their lands and their property, in order to remain under British rule. They came to Canada and laid the foundation of prosperous settlements on the banks of the St. Lawrence, and round Lakes Ontario and Erie, where they hewed homes for themselves out of the dense forests that lined the shores of these lakes.

The discharged soldiers of the 100th Regiment went to their respective homes in various parts of the country, and to-day many of them occupy positions of honour and trust, in virtue of their military experience and discipline. Not a few of them joined the militia regiments that were raised in 1870, to accompany Colonel, Sir Garnet Wolseley's expedition to the North-West Territory, for the suppression of the first Riel Rebellion. Colonel Casault, of Quebec, a former officer of the 100th, was appointed commander of one of these militia battalions; and many other officers and men were appointed to military and civil positions and to the police force of the country, whose experience was found of great advantage. Among others, I might mention Colonel Duchesnay, Deputy Adjutant-General of Quebec; Colonel Fletcher, Colonel De Bellefeuille, Colonel Van Straubenzie, who joined the regiment in England, now Deputy Adjutant-General, at Kingston; Colonel Grasett, who commanded the Royal Grenadiers in the late cam- paign; Captain Hudson, of London; Sergeant-Major Burn, who put in his full twenty-one years in the Hun- dredth and now enjoys his pension, and who acted as Sergeant-Major of the 7th Fusiliers of London during the last campaign; Lieut. Carriere, manager of a leading bank in Ottawa; Lieut. Brown Wallis, now in the Department of the Interior, Ottawa ; Sergeant-Major Rance, now in the Post Office Department, Ottawa; Quarter-Master Grant, in the Militia Department, now superannuated; Carrol Ryan, who was the regimental poet, now a leading journalist in Ottawa; E. A. Bailey, a prominent member of the Farmers' Union, of Manitoba, who is also a journalist; Lieut. William Palmer Clark, for some time an Indian agent in the North-West; Lieut. J. G. Ridout, of Toronto; Colonel Lake, of Broadview, N. W. T., and many others who took part in the past campaign under General Middleton, all qualified by discipline in the regiment. Colonel Davidson, a cousin of Colonel Grasett's, remained in the service, and now commands the 19th Regiment.

The raising of the 100th Regiment in Canada, in 1858, has been of no unimportant service in fostering the military spirit of the country, and in maintaining loyalty to the British Crown; for the twelve hundred men of this regiment were taken from the homes of Canadian settlers, who keenly followed the fortunes of their friends through the vicissitudes of British military service. It would not be unwise on the part of England to revive the recruiting depot in Canada that was withdrawn in 1861, as many good men could be enlisted who would prove a valuable connecting link between the Crown and the Colonies. No more serviceable material for the army could be found anywhere than is to be found in all parts of Canada - men of good physique, inured to hardships, accustomed to the use of weapons, and full of experience and resource. England now draws annually a number of capable officers from our Military Colleges; and I venture to think that she would profit greatly by recruiting the rank and file of her army from the brawn and muscle of Canadian yeomanry.

In thus calling to mind the raising, now nearly thirty years ago, of this Canadian Regiment for British service abroad, the advantages to Canada as well as to England cannot be overlooked.

I append a list of officers of the 100th in 1858, which will doubtless be interesting to those who had relatives or friends in the regiment :-

COLONEL :-Lord Melville, K.C.B.

*LIEUTENANT-COLONEL :-George de Rottenburg, C.B.

MAJOR :-James henry Craig Robertson.

*V. C :-Alexander Roberts Dunn.

CAPTAINS :-Thomas Matthew Luz Weguelin, Robert Bethune Ingram, Percy G. Batfield Lake, Henry Cooke, James Clery, Henry George Browne, * John Clarke, *Terrence Waverly Smythe,* George Macartney, *Charles John Clark, * Richard Charles Price, George Pilkington Blake.

LIEUTENANTS :-George Bell Coulson, John Lee, Adjt.; James Lamb, Fred. Wm. Benwell, Henry Lionel Nicholles, Joseph Dooley, Richard Lane Bailiff, * John Fletcher, * Louis Adolphe Casault, C. A. L. De Bellefeuille, *Phillip Derbishire, Alfred Edwin Rykert, * Charles Henry Carriere, *Henry Theodore Duchesnay, *Brown Wallis.

ENSIGNs :-Constantine McD. Moorsom, Frederick Morris, *John Gibbs Ridout, *Henry Edward Davidson, *Charles Arkall Boulton, *Thomas Henry Baldwin, *William Palmer Clarke. In 1867 Colonel Grasett was appointed Ensign.

PAYMASTER :-Joseph Hutchison.

ADJUTANT :-Lieut. John Lee.

INSTRUCTOR OF MUSKETRY :-Ensign F. Morris.

QUARTER-MASTER :---George Grant

SURGEON :-Williarn Barrett, M.D.

ASSISTANT-SURGEONS:--Thos. Liddard, Daniel Murray.


Those marked with an asterisk are the Canadian Officers.

Chapter 2

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